Pengaruh Temperatur Reaksi dan Tekanan Hidrogen Pada Penghidrorengkahan Fraksi Distilat Vakum Tar Batubara

Tulisan “Pengaruh Temperatur Reaksi dan Tekanan Hidrogen Pada Penghidrorengkahan Fraksi Distilat Vakum Tar Batubara” dan telah dimuat di Lembaran Publikasi Minyak dan Gas Bumi Vol 49 No 3 Hal 155-163 Desember 2015 ISSN : 2089-3396 Untuk baca abstraknya bisa dibaca disini.

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Mudah meledak (explosive – E)

Mudah meledak (explosive – E)

Limbah B3 mudah meledak (mudah meledak) adalah Limbah yang pada suhu dan tekanan standar yaitu 25oC (dua puluh lima derajat Celcius) atau 760 mmHg (tujuh ratus enam puluh millimeters of mercury) dapat meledak, atau melalui reaksi kimia dan/atau fisika dapat menghasilkan gas dengan suhu dan tekanan tinggi yang dengan cepat dapat merusak lingkungan sekitarnya.

PP No. 101 Tahun 2014 Pengelolaan Limbah Bahan Berbahaya Dan Beracun

Pengujiannya dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) atau Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), 2,4-dinitrotoluena atau Dibenzoilperoksida sebagai senyawa acuan. Dari hasil pengujian tersebut akan diperoleh nilai temperature pemanasan. Apabila nilai temperatur pemanasan suatu bahan lebih besar dari senyawa acuan, maka bahan tersebut diklasifikasikan mudah meledak.

PP No 74 Tahun 2001 Pengelolaan Bahan Berbahaya Dan Beracun

Salinity and Conductivity

PHYSICAL METHODS OF SALINITY MEASUREMENT

Pure water is a poor conductor of electricity. However, the presence of ions in water enables it to carry an electric current. In the 1930s, it was established that the electrical conductivity of seawater is proportional to its salinity. Conductivity is inversely proportional to resistivity, and for many decades conductivity salinometers were based on simple electrical bridge circuits, using ‘standard seawater’ of known salinity (close to 35) for calibration.

Conductivity is also affected by temperature, however, which can lead to appreciable errors. Ideally, physical oceanographers require salinity measurements to be accurate to + 0.001, requiring conductivity to be measured to 1 part in 40 000. A change of this magnitude can be induced by a temperature change of only 0.001oC so careful control of temperature is essential.

In the past, precision thermostatting was used to maintain both sample and standard seawater at constant temperature, but the equipment was bulky and measurements took a long time because samples had to be heated or cooled to working temperature before measurement could begin. Such problems have now been largely circumvented, and modem salinometers are compact and rapid in operation, and can measure salinity to + 0.003 or better.

Conductivity sensors have been incorporated into in situ temperature salinity instruments for use in shallow waters, and into conductivity temperature- depth (CTD) probes for use in the deep oceans.

THE FORMAL DEFINITION OF SALINITY

Since the mid-1960s, the definition of salinity has been based (by international agreement) on empirically determined and rather complicated looking formulations involving a conductivity standard.

The salinity of a sample of seawater is now measured in terms of the conductivity ratio, R, which is defined by:

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the concentration of the standard KC1 solution being 32.435 6 g kg-1. Salinity is related to the conductivity ratio at 15o C and 1 atmosphere pressure (R15) by the following equation:

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Reference

Seawater Second Edition : Its Composition, Properties and Behaviour

TEMPERATUR

Temperatur berpengaruh pada penggunaan air
– Kelarutan gas seperti oksigen dan CO2 menurun dengan meningkatnya temperatur air.
– Biodegradasi bahan organik di air dan sedimen dipercepat dengan meningkatnya temperatur, meningkatnya kebutuhan DO.
– Metabolisme ikan dan tanaman bergantung pada temperatur.
Kebanyakkan kesetimbangan kimia tergantung pada temperatur. Contoh penting dilingkungan adalah kesetimbangan antara bentuk ion dan tidak ammonia, hidrogen sianida dan hidrogen sulfide.
Analisa temperatur dapat menggunakan SNI 06-6989.23-2005

Daftar Pustaka

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry A Practical Guide, Second Edition, by Eugene R. Weiner

PARAMETER PENTING ANALISA KUALITAS AIR

Parameter dibawah memiliki pengaruh terhadap parameter kualitas air lainnya. Sehingga rutin dianalisa untuk sampling kualitas air.

1. pH

2. Temperatur

3. Alkalinity dan acidity

4. TDS atau conductivity

5. Oxidation reduction (redox ) potential

Daftar Pustaka

Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry A Practical Guide, Second Edition, by  Eugene R. Weiner