Total Suspended Solid

Total Suspended Solid (TSS) is detrimental to fish health by decreasing growth, disease resistance, and egg development.

At low concentrations, TSS ( in mg/L for soil erosion, or mikrogram-chlorophyll/L for algae) is roughly equal to turbidity in NTU.

TSS in treated discharges may be used as a preliminary screening measure of pollutant removal.
a. if  effluent TSS <45 mg/L , discharge generally complies with effluent limits.

b. if  effluent TSS >45 mg/L , analyze discharge for other constituents that may exceed discharge limits.

Reference

Eugene R. Weiner. Application of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry. A Practical Guide. Third edition. CRC Press

Turbidity lagi

Turbidity1

(gambar dari http://www.waterontheweb.org/under/waterquality/turbidity.html )

Arti nilai turbidity dari hasil analisa laboratorium maksudnya apa sich ? Dibilang turbidity kecil itu nilainya berapa, kalau besar juga berapa. Sebagai tambahan aza, turbidity dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah kekeruhan. Ini hasil dari baca dibuku :

Turbidity < 0.1 NTU is required for effective disinfection.

Turbidity ~ 5 NTU in drinking water is visible but generally acceptable to consumers.

Turbidity < 10 NTU is generally regarded as low turbidity

Turbidity > 10 NTU is generally regarded as turbid

Turbidity > 50 NTU is generally regarded as high turbidity

Analisa turbidity bisa menggunakan SNI 06.6989.25-2005 cara uji kekeruhan dengan nefelometer

Reference

Eugene R. Weiner. Application of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry. A Practical Guide. Third edition. CRC Press

Turbidity is used as an indicator of potential problems

Turbidity

(pic from http://www.epa.gov )

  1. Turbidity can indicate excessive soil erosion from earth-disturbing activities such as construction, agriculture, and logging.
  2. Turbidity often increases sharply during heavy rainfall in developed water-sheds, especially those having a relatively high proportion of impervious surface.
  3. Turbidity is used to monitor the erosion rates of stream banks and channels that may require additional erosion control practices.
  4. Not only does turbidity interfere with drinking water disinfection, but also suspended particles can provide a habitat for pathogens. The WHO (2010) recommends that the turbidity of drinking water be less than 1 NTU, but never more than 5 NTU. (Permenkes No 492 Tahun 2010, Turbidity = 5 NTU (max))
  5. Moderately low levels of turbidity may indicate a healthy, well-functioning ecosystem, with moderate amounts of plankton present to fuel the food chain.
  6. At higher level of turbidity :
  • suspended particles absorb energy from sunlight, making water bodies warmer and potentially reducing the concentration of DO to stressful levels for aquatic life.
  • photosynthesis of aquatic plants and algae is diminished, also decreasing DO.
  • in slow-moving water, settling particle may blanket and suffocate fish eggs, benthic animals and insect larvae
  • shallow lakes fill in faster to become marshland
  • suspended solids can transport sorbed metals, pesticides, nutrients and other low-solubility pollutants throughout a stream system
  • suspended solids can clog fish gills, reducing resistance to disease in fish, lowering growth rates and affecting egg and larval development

Reference

Eugene R. Weiner. Application of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry. A Practical Guide. Third edition. CRC Press